A nation-state, in the most simple and basic terms, is composed of a society of people and the land they claim as theirs, overseen by some form of governmental body. And perhaps most importantly, the nation-state is an idea – an intellectual mechanism – created in an attempt to provide for the advancement of society as a whole.
The ideas which form the very essence of a nation-state, and government in general, have always existed in the minds of men. Human beings, who are among the most socially-oriented creatures on Earth, will naturally organize themselves into groups so as to better communicate, better protect themselves, better provide sustenance, and ultimately survive. It is a simple truth that a group of people able to think creatively and work cohesively will be in a state of perpetual improvement.